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Fig. 1. Multimodality molecular imaging research. 7.0T MRI is used to image the anatomical structure of the animal model, microPET is used to measure the global metabolic changes, and finally WINCS is used to measure the neurotransmitter concentration in the target area.

• Multimodality molecular imaging to investigate functional brain activity in animal models

(1) microPET imaging: [F-18] FDG and [C-11] Raclopride imaging

Fig. 2. [F-18] FDG: brain glucose metabolism imaging

Fig. 3. [C-11] Raclopride: dopamine D2 receptor imaging

Fig. 4. MicroPET/CT Fusion imaging

(2) MicroMRI imaging

Fig. 5. 7.0T MRI imaging

• WINCS (Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System) and Electrochemistry (Fixed Potential Amperometry and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry), in collaboration with the Mayo Clinic (USA)

Emerging evidences support the hypothesis that the modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as well as motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore play an important role in advancement of functional neurosurgery by providing a strategy for the understanding of the mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and the chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, we have investigated the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time co-monitoring of electrical stimulation-evoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) with a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM). Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. WINCS detected sub-second adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals, such as dopamine, comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Altogether, WINCS appears well suited for the wireless monitoring of high frequency stimulation-evoked changes in extracellular concentrations of adenosine in the brain. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology.

• References

- Neural responses of rats in the forced swimming test: [F-18]FDG micro PET study. Jang DP, Lee SH, Lee SY, Park CW, Cho ZH, Kim YB. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]
- Effects of fluoxetine on the rat brain in the forced swimming test: a [F-18]FDG micro-PET imaging study. Jang DP, Lee SH, Park CW, Lee SY, Kim YB, Cho ZH. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Feb 13;451(1):60-4.
- Neural responses in rat brain during acute immobilization stress: a [F-18]FDG micro PET imaging study. Sung KK, Jang DP, Lee S, Kim M, Lee SY, Kim YB, Park CW, Cho ZH. Neuroimage. 2009 Feb 1;44(3):1074-80.
- Evolution of Deep Brain Stimulation: Human Electrometer and Smart Devices Supporting the Next Generation of Therapy. Kendall H. Lee, Charles D. Blaha, Paul A. Garris, Pedram Mohseni, April E. Horne, Kevin E. Bennet, Filippo Agnesi, Jonathan M. Bledsoe, Deranda B. Lester, Chris Kimble, Hoon-Ki Min, Young-Bo Kim, Zang-Hee Cho. Neuromodulation 12:2,77 – 170

• Research Interests

Molecular imaging
Functional neuroimaging
Parkinson’s disease
Pain mechanism